The main surgical sperm retrieval methods are as follows:
PESA: (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) It is the acquisition of sperm by aspiration method by reaching the epididymis with a needle without making an incision from the skin.
MESA: (Micro-Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) It is a method of obtaining live sperm cells by aspirating with the help of a needle, by reaching the epididymis through an incision made on the skin. PESA and MESA occlusion type azoospermia are mostly used for sperm retrieval after vasectomy.
TESE: (Testicular Sperm Extraction - Micro TESE) It is a method of searching for live sperm in very small tissue samples, by identifying areas with a higher chance of finding sperm after examination under the microscope from both testes, which are reached through a very small incision on the scrotum skin. It is possible to obtain around %30-50 sperm, usually depending on the underlying problem. The microTESE procedure does not have any long-term effects that will affect the later life or sexual functions of the male.
TESA: (Testicular Sperm Aspiration) It is the process of entering the testicular tissue with the help of a needle and taking sperm from the sperm canal.
It is performed under local anesthesia without incision and suture application. After the procedure, hospitalization and rest are not required; since complications such as wound inflammation and bleeding are almost never seen, it is used as an alternative way to find sperm cells in appropriate cases.