Main surgical sperm retrieval techniques are listed below:
PESA :(Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) is a sperm retrieval procedure which does not require surgical incision but performed with a needle passed directly into the head of epididymis.
MESA :(Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration) is a sperm retrieval procedure that involves making an incision to have access to the epididymis to extract sperm. PESA and MESA are mostly used to extract sperm after vasectomy or obstructive azoospermia.
TESE : (Testicular Sperm Extraction - Micro TESE) In this technique, after a small incision is made on the scrotum skin, the testes are examined under microscope and the areas where the possibility of finding sperm is high is determined and live sperm is found in the small pieces of tissue removed from those areas. Generally depending on the underlying problem it is possible to extract 30-50% sperm. Micro TESE procedure does not have any long or short term effect on the life or sexual functions of a man.